fifo equivalent units

Assume that beginning inventory is 50 percent complete with respect to materials and 30 percent complete with respect to conversion costs. Equivalent units is a cost accounting concept that is used in process costing for cost calculations. It has no relevance from an operational perspective, nor is it useful for any other type of cost derivation other than process costing. C This must match total costs to be accounted for shown in Figure 4.5 “Summary of Costs to Be Accounted for in Desk Products’ Assembly Department”.

The second method of calculating equivalent units of production uses a FIFO method or First-in First-out. Businesses will first sell the finished inventory that they first receive, followed by any inventory they receive later, hence first in, first out. Although rounding differences still may occur, this will minimize the size of rounding errors when attempting to reconcile costs to be accounted for (step 2) with costs accounted for (step 4). Now you were just about to provide your CFO with the equivalent units, when he asks for a production cost report. With so many shirts moving into and out of production, the easiest way to keep track of your inventory and cost is the production cost report.

Step 1: Definition of FIFO

At the end of the period, ABC had incurred 35% of the labor and manufacturing overhead costs required to complete the 1,000 green widgets. Consequently, there were 1,000 equivalent units for materials and 350 equivalent units for direct labor and manufacturing overhead. To use the FIFO method, only the percentage of beginning parts completed during the accounting period is used, along with the production costs incurred in completing those units. You can use the same method for calculating the overhead costs and materials if you know the percentage of completion of each pricing factor. The simpler of the two methods is the weighted average method. The FIFO method is more accurate, but the additional calculations do not represent a good cost-benefit trade off.

The May 31 inventory in Department B (June’s beginning work in process) consists of 2,000 units that are fully complete as to materials and 60% complete as to conversion. Beginning work in process inventory has accumulated costs of $6,180. Second, the FIFO method gives full consideration to the amount of processing done during the current period on the units in beginning inventory and on the units in ending inventory.

Introduction to Business

Kelley Paint Company uses the weighted average method to account for costs of production. Kelley manufactures base paint in two separate departments—Mixing and Packaging. The following information is for the Mixing department for the month of March. Summarize the costs to be accounted for (separated into direct materials, direct labor, and overhead). This is a statement that is used in cost accounting to express the cumulative cost as per inputs used, equivalent units and cost per unit. Under FIFO, we are only interested in the current period costs which is June for this example.

fifo equivalent units

Note that four key steps were performed for the Assembly department to determine the costs assigned to (1) completed units transferred out to the Finishing department ($248,000) and (2) units in Assembly’s WIP inventory ($138,000). Before we present the formula that is used in FIFO method and exemplify the procedure of computing equivalent units of production, you need to know the following two important characteristics of the FIFO method of process costing. This article explains the computation of equivalent units of production under FIFO method. The concept of equivalent units has been explained in the previous article of this chapter – equivalent units of production – weighted average method. If you have come to this article directly, we suggest you first read the previous article to grasp the concept of equivalent units and then come back to this article to continue.


Figure 4.6 “Calculation of the Cost per Equivalent Unit for Desk Products’ Assembly Department” presents the cost per equivalent unit calculation for Desk Products’ Assembly department. In the next page, we will do a demonstration problem of the FIFO method for process costing. Introduction material here is additional costs whose cost is straight away stated as 10,720. This cost amount is well captured during the production process within the period given. This method is also applicable if the degree of completion and value of WIP in terms of material, labor and overheads is given. FIFO can be defined as a method used to calculate the ending inventory and the cost of goods sold for a business entity.

What is the FIFO method for equivalent units?

Under the FIFO method, we will calculate equivalent units for 3 things: Units completed from beginning work in process, units started and completed this period and units remaining in ending work in process.

During June, the department began with no units in inventory and then started and completed 10,000 units. In addition, it started 1,000 units but they were only 30% complete at the end of June. The production cost report for this department will indicate that it manufactured 10,300 (10,000 + 300) equivalent units of product during June. First, we need to know our total costs for the period (or total costs to account for) by adding beginning work in process costs to the costs incurred or added this period. Then, we compare the total to the cost assignment in step 4 for units completed and transferred and ending work in process to get total units accounted for. Accountants use the term equivalent units to explain how costs are segmented between items that are still in production versus items that are in completed form.

FIFO Inventory Method of Finding Equivalent Units

Plugging in the information that you have from the parts maker, there are 300 partially completed units. A This column represents actual physical units accounted for before converting to equivalent units. Later in step 3, we will use equivalent unit information for the Assembly department to calculate the cost per equivalent unit. Under the weighted average method, we use beginning work in process costs AND costs added this period.

FIFO: What the First In, First Out Method Is and How to Use It – Investopedia

FIFO: What the First In, First Out Method Is and How to Use It.

Posted: Sat, 25 Mar 2017 22:06:17 GMT [source]

Table 4.2 “Production Information for Desk Products’ Assembly Department” presents information for the Assembly department at Desk Products for the month of May. Review this information carefully as it will be used to illustrate the four key steps. Use the cost per equivalent unit to assign costs to (1) completed units transferred out and (2) units in ending WIP inventory.

In FIFO, both beginning and ending inventories are essentially converted to an equivalent units basis. The equivalent units belonging to beginning inventory represent the work done during the current period to complete the units that were not completed in the previous period. The equivalent units belonging to ending inventory represent the work done during the current period to bring the units to a stage of partial completion. These partially completed units at the end of the current period will become the beginning work in process inventory of the next period. Figure 4.8 “Flow of Costs through the Work-in-Process Inventory T-Account of Desk Products’ Assembly Department” shows the flow of costs through the work-in-process inventory T-account for the Assembly department.

fifo equivalent units

Although not an issue in this example, rounding the cost per equivalent unit may cause minor differences between the two amounts. Figure 4.5 “Summary of Costs to Be Accounted for in Desk Products’ Assembly Department” shows that costs totaling $386,000 must be assigned to (1) completed units transferred out and (2) units in ending WIP inventory. Equivalent units under FIFO method of process costing https://turbo-tax.org/mm-millions-definition-examples-what-mm-means/ are the number of finished units that could have been prepared in a process during a period had there been no unfinished units, either in opening WIP or closing WIP. Calculate the equivalent units of production for the forming department. Calculate the units of production from both materials and conversion. Using FIFO, you’ll have two percentages to determine for beginning and ending inventory.

What two methods are used for calculating equivalent units?

Two methods used to determine equivalent units of production in process costing is : Answer :a) Weighted average and FIFO Explanation for the answer : There are two ways we can calculate the equivalent units of production for a department or proces…

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